The Canadian artist, who was discovered via YouTube aged 13, admitted to heavy drug use and abusing his relationships.
"I became resentful, disrespectful to women and angry," he wrote. "I became distant to everyone who loved me... I felt like I could never turn it around."
Bieber, who has been candid about his mental health struggles, explained how the constant praise he received in his teens distorted his perspective on life.
"I went from a 13-year-old boy from a small town to being praised left and right by the world, with millions saying how much they loved me and how great I was," he said.
"You hear these things enough as a young boy and you actually start believing it."
"Everyone did everything for me, so I never even learned the fundamentals of responsibility," he explained on Instagram.
Bieber was arrested several times in 2014 with offences ranging from vandalism to driving under the influence, a charge which was later reduced to driving without due care and attention.
The 25-year-old, who is a devout Christian, went on to credit the faith and support of friends and family, including his wife Hailey Baldwin, with helping him to turn his life around.
"It's taken me years to bounce back from all of these terrible decisions, fix broken relationships, and change relationship habits," he wrote.
"Luckily, God blessed me with extraordinary people who love me for me," he added. "Now I am navigating the best season of my life 'MARRIAGE'!!"
Bieber took an extended break from music after cancelling the final 14 dates of his 2017 Purpose World Tour, saying: "I want my mind heart and soul to be sustainable".
However, he has recently appeared as a guest vocalist on Ed Sheeran's number one single I Don't Care, and a remix of Billie Eilish's Bad Guy - prompting speculation he might be about to return with new solo material.