A major clinical trial has kicked off to determine the drug's effectiveness.
A world-first clinical trial will examine whether an everyday antibiotic could help reduce recurrent miscarriage.
The study centres around treating of endometritis – an infection often found the lining of the womb – which creates an imbalance of the bacteria that live in the reproductive tract and can lead to miscarriage.
Treating endometritis with antibiotics may reduce the condition by reducing disruptive bacteria and allowing the healthy bacteria to grow.
The research is being conducted by the University of Warwick in partnership with University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire NHS trust in the UK.
Warwick Medical School's Professor Siobhan Quenby, the principal investigator on the trial, said: "This is potentially a new treatment for up to half of people with recurrent miscarriage.
"We know that doxycycline is given to some women experiencing a miscarriage in other countries, but there has never been a proper trial conducted.
"And instead of just having your blood tested to look for causes of miscarriage, as is current practice, you will have the lining of the womb tested too so that we can identify those who will benefit from this treatment.
"Our aim is to try to improve the womb before you get pregnant. Most miscarriages occur within the first trimester - 12 weeks - of pregnancy and our aim is to see a reduction in these early miscarriages."
The trial aims to discover whether using the antibiotic doxycycline – often used to treat chest and skin infections – in women with the condition endometritis can improve their chances of having a baby.
In America and Germany, the antibiotic is already used to treat recurrent miscarriage by improving the balance of bacteria present in their reproductive system.
The trial has received £1.9m in funding and will involve more than 3,000 women in NHS hospitals in the UK who have a recurrent miscarriage.